Periodontal disease begins with the accumulation of various bacteria on the surfaces of the teeth, forming dental plaque. Within 1-2 days, the plaque begins to calcify; forming tartar deposits that irritate the gums.
Continuous irritation of the gums causes gingivitis. Gums become reddened, slightly swollen and may bleed when brushed. As the condition becomes worse, periodontitis develops. This causes the gums to become puffy and purplish-red, and bleeding is common. Then, pockets around the teeth develop and the bones supporting the teeth begin to deteriorate, indicating periodontal disease.